American Boat & Yacht Council

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Electrical Standards & Recommended Practices For Small Craft

 

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E-9 DIRECT CURRENT (DC) ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ON BOATS
Based on ABYC's assessment of the existing technology, and the problems associated with achieving the goals of this standard, ABYC recommends compliance with this standard for all boats, associated equipment, and systems manufactured after July 31, 1999.

NOTE: The United States Coast Guard has promulgated mandatory requirements for electrical systems in Title 33, CFR 183 Subpart I, Section 183. Refer to the CFR for complete, current federal requirements.

E-9.2 SCOPE
These standards and recommended practices apply to direct current (DC) electrical systems on boats that operate at potentials of 50 volts or less.
EXCEPTION: Any wire that is part of an outboard engine assembly and does not extend inside the boat.

E-9.5 REQUIREMENTS - IN GENERAL
E-9.5.1 Two-Wire System - All direct current electrical distribution systems shall be of the two-wire type. See Figures 1A and 1B, and Figures 2A and 2B.
EXCEPTION: Engine mounted equipment.
E-9.5.2 DC Grounding Systems and Bonding - A metallic hull, or the bonding and DC grounding systems, shall not be used as a return conductor. See Figures 1A and 1B, and Figures 2A and 2B, and E-9.21, DC Grounding and Bonding.
E-9.5.3 Grounded Systems - If one side of a two-wire direct current system is connected to ground, it shall be the negative side and polarized as defined in E-9.4.
E-9.5.4 Multiple Engine Installation - If a boat has more than one engine with a grounded cranking motor, which includes auxiliary generator engine(s), the engines shall be connected to each other by a common conductor that can carry the cranking motor current of each of the grounded cranking motor circuits. Outboard engines shall be connected at the battery negative terminals.
E-9.5.5 Crossover (Parallel) Cranking Motor Circuits - In multiple inboard engine installations, which includes auxiliary generator(s) with cross-over (parallel) cranking motor systems, the engines shall be connected together with a cable large enough to carry the cranking motor current. This cable and its terminations shall be in addition to, and independent of, any other electrical connections to the engines including those required in E-9.5.4.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Installations using ungrounded DC electrical systems.
2. Outboard engines.
E-9.5.6 If a paralleling switch is installed, it shall be capable of carrying the largest cranking motor current.
NOTE: A paralleling switch may be either of the maintained contact or momentary contact type.
E-9.5.7 DC System Negative Connections
E-9.5.7.1 If an alternating current (AC) system is installed, the main AC system grounding bus shall be connected to
E-9.5.7.1.1 the engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus on grounded DC systems, or
E-9.5.7.1.2 the boat's DC grounding bus in installations using ungrounded DC electrical systems. See ABYC E-8, AC Electrical Systems on Boats.
E-9.5.7.2 The negative terminal of the battery, and the negative side of the DC system, shall be connected to the engine negative terminal or its bus. On boats with outboard motors, the load return lines shall be connected to the battery negative terminal or its bus, unless specific provision is made by the outboard motor manufacturer for connection to the engine negative terminal.
E-9.5.7.3 If an accessory negative bus with provision for additional circuits is used for the connection of accessories, the ampacity of this bus, and the conductor connected to the engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus, shall be at least equal to the ampacity of the feeder(s) to the panelboard(s) supplying the connected accessories. See Figures 1A and 1B, and Figures 2A and 2B.
E-9.5.7.4 If the negative side of the DC system is to be connected to ground, the connection shall be made only from the engine negative terminal, or its bus, to the DC grounding bus. This connection shall be used only as a means of maintaining the negative side of the circuit at ground potential and is not to carry current under normal operating conditions.
E-9.5.7.5 Continuously energized parts, such as positive battery terminals and both ends of all wire connected thereto, shall be physically protected with boots, or other form of protection, that cover all energized surfaces to prevent accidental short circuits.
EXCEPTION: Circuits that have overcurrent protection at the source of power in accordance with E-9.12.

E-9.6 MARKING
E-9.6.1 Marking - Switches and electrical controls shall be marked to indicate their usage.
EXCEPTION: A switch or electrical control whose purpose is obvious, and whose mistaken operation will not cause a hazardous condition.
E-9.6.2 Marking of Equipment - Electrical equipment, except a part of an identified assembly, such as an engine, shall be marked or identified by the manufacturer to indicate:
E-9.6.2.1 manufacturer;
E-9.6.2.2 product identification;
E-9.6.2.3 DC electrical rating in volts;
NOTE: Rated amperage or wattage of electrical equipment may be marked on the device. See E-9.6.3.
E-9.6.2.4 the terminal polarity or identification, if necessary to operation;
E-9.6.2.5 "ignition protected," if applicable. This shall be identified by a marking such as "SAE J1171-Marine," "UL Marine Ignition Protected," or "Ignition Protected."
E-9.6.3 Rated amperage or wattage of electrical equipment shall be available. See the note in E-9.6.2.3.

E-9.7 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
E-9.7.1 The ambient temperature of machinery spaces is considered to be 50C (122F), and of all other spaces is considered to be 30C (86F).

E-9.8 IGNITION SOURCE
E-9.8.1 Electrical sources of ignition located in spaces containing gasoline powered machinery, or gasoline fuel tank(s), or joint fitting(s), or other connection(s) between components of a gasoline system shall be ignition protected, unless the component is isolated from a gasoline fuel source as described in E-9.8.3. See Figure 3 through 10.
EXCEPTION: 1. Boats using diesel fuel as the only fuel source.
2. Outboard engines mounted externally or in compartments open to the atmosphere in accordance with the requirements of ABYC H-2, Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline.
E-9.8.2 If LPG or CNG is provided on the boat, all electrical sources of ignition located in a compartment containing LPG or CNG appliances, cylinders, fittings, valves, or regulators shall be ignition protected.
EXCEPTION: For boats with LPG or CNG systems installed in accordance with the requirements of ABYC A-1, Marine Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Systems, or ABYC A-22, Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems, and stoves complying with ABYC A-3, Galley Stoves, electrical devices in the following compartments are excepted:
1. Accommodation spaces.
2. Open compartments having at least 15 square inches (970cm2) of open area per cubic foot (0.28cm3) of net compartment volume exposed to the atmosphere outside of the craft.
E-9.8.3 An electrical component is isolated from a gasoline fuel source if
E-9.8.3.1 a bulkhead that meets the requirements of E-9.8.4 (see Figure 9 and Figure 10) is between the electrical component and the gasoline fuel source, or
E-9.8.3.2 the electrical component is
E-9.8.3.2.1 lower than the gasoline fuel source, and a means is provided to prevent gasoline fuel and gasoline fuel vapors that may leak from the gasoline fuel sources from becoming exposed to the electrical component; or
E-9.8.3.2.2 higher than the gasoline fuel source, and a deck or other enclosure is between it and the gasoline fuel source; or
E-9.8.3.2.3 the distance between the electrical component and the fuel source is at least two feet (610mm), and the space is open to the atmosphere. See Figure 8.
E-9.8.4 Each bulkhead required by E-9.8.3.1 (see Figure 9 and Figure 10) shall
E-9.8.4.1 separate the electrical component from the fuel source, and extend, both vertically and horizontally, the distance of the open space between the gasoline fuel source and the ignition source, and
E-9.8.4.2 resist a water level that is 12 inches (305mm) high, or one-third of the maximum height of the bulkhead, whichever is less, without seepage of more than one-quarter fluid ounce (7.4cc) of fresh water per hour, and
E-9.8.4.3 have no opening higher than 12 inches (305mm), or one-third the maximum height of the bulkhead, whichever is less, unless the opening is used for the passage of conductors, piping, ventilation ducts, mechanical equipment, and similar items, or doors, hatches, and access panels; and the maximum annular space around each item or door, hatch or access panel shall not be more than one-quarter inch (6mm).
E-9.8.5 To minimize the potential for migration of carbon monoxide from machinery compartments containing gasoline engines to adjacent accommodation compartments, bulkhead and deck penetrations shall be in accordance with the requirements of ABYC H-2, Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline.
NOTE: For additional information see ABYC T-22, Educational Information About Carbon Monoxide; and ABYC TH-23, Design, Construction, and Testing of Boats in Consideration of Carbon Monoxide.


E-9.10 BATTERY CAPACITY
E-9.10.1 The battery, or battery bank, shall have at least the cold cranking amperage required by the engine manufacturer.
E-9.10.2 The battery, or battery bank, shall have a rated reserve capacity so that,
E-9.10.2.1 for boats with one battery charging source the battery shall be capable of supplying the total load of Column A in Table I for a minimum of 1 1/2 hours; or
E-9.10.2.2 for boats with multiple simultaneous battery charging sources, the capacity of all charging sources, except the largest charging source shall be subtracted from the total load of Column A. The battery shall be capable of supplying the resulting differences for a minimum of 1 1/2 hours.
E-9.10.2.3 Use Table II for reserve capacity values, or the following formula derived from Peukert's equation to calculate the required reserve capacity:
T = 0.0292 x I 1.225 x 60

T = battery reserve capacity in minutes
I = total current of column A in amperes per E-9.9.1

E-9.11 DC POWER SOURCES
E-9.11.1 Overcurrent Protection Device Location - Ungrounded conductors shall be provided with overcurrent protection within a distance of 7 inches (175mm) of the point at which the conductor is connected to the source of power measured along the conductor. See Figure 11.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Cranking motor conductors.
2. If the conductor is connected directly to the battery terminal and is contained throughout its entire distance in a sheath or enclosure such as a conduit, junction box, control box or enclosed panel, the overcurrent protection shall be placed as close as practicable to the battery, but not to exceed 72 inches (1.83m).
3. If the conductor is connected to a source of power other than a battery terminal and is contained throughout its entire distance in a sheath or enclosure such as a conduit, junction box, control box or enclosed panel, the overcurrent protection shall be placed as close as practicable to the point of connection to the source of power, but not to exceed 40 inches (1.02m).
NOTE: See Section E-9.17, Installation.
E-9.11.2 Battery Charging Sources
E-9.11.2.1 Each ungrounded conductor connected to a battery charger, alternator, or other charging source, shall be provided with overcurrent protection within a distance of 7 inches (175mm) of the point of connection to the DC electrical system or to the battery.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. If the conductor is connected directly to the battery terminal and is contained throughout its entire distance in a sheath or enclosure such as a conduit, junction box, control box or enclosed panel, the overcurrent protection shall be placed as close as practicable to the battery, but not to exceed 72 inches (1.83m).
2. If the conductor is connected to a source of power other than a battery terminal and is contained throughout its entire distance in a sheath or enclosure such as a conduit, junction box, control box or enclosed panel, the overcurrent protection shall be placed as close as practicable to the point of connection to the source of power, but not to exceed 40 inches (1.02m). Overcurrent protection is not required in conductors from self-limiting alternators with integral regulators if the conductor is less than 40 inches (1.02m), is connected to a source of power other than the battery, and is contained throughout its entire distance in a sheath or enclosure.
E-9.11.2.2 In addition to the provisions of E-9.11.2.1, the ungrounded conductor shall be provided with overcurrent protection within the charging source, or within 7 inches (175mm) of the charging source, based on the maximum output of the device.
EXCEPTION: Self-limiting devices.
E-9.11.3 Battery Switch
E-9.11.3.1 A battery switch shall be installed in the positive conductor(s) from each battery or battery bank with a CCA rating greater than 800 amperes.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Trolling motor conductors connected to dedicated trolling motor batteries provided with overcurrent protection at the battery and a manual means of electrical disconnect separate from the trolling motor controls.
2. Conductors supplying the following may be connected to the battery side of the switch (see Figure 12):
a. Electronic equipment with continuously powered memory;
b. Safety equipment such as bilge pumps, alarms, CO detectors and bilge blowers;
c. Battery charging equipment.
E-9.11.3.2 A battery switch shall be mounted in a readily accessible location as close as practicable to the battery.
E-9.11.3.3 Battery Switch Ratings - The intermittent rating of a battery switch shall not be less than the maximum cranking current of the largest engine cranking motor that it serves. The minimum continuous rating of a battery switch shall be the total of the ampacities of the main overcurrent protection devices connected to the battery switch, or the ampacity of the feeder cable to the switch, whichever is less.

E-9.12 OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
E-9.12.1 Motors or Motor Operated Equipment - Motors and motor operated equipment, except for engine cranking motors, shall be protected internally at the equipment, or by branch circuit overcurrent protection devices suitable for motor current. The protection provided shall preclude a fire hazard if the circuit, as installed, is energized for seven hours under any conditions of overload, including locked rotor.
NOTES: 1. It may be necessary to use thermally responsive protection devices on the equipment or system if the motor is not capable of operating continuously at maximum possible loading.
2. It may be necessary to test as installed in order to assure compliance with the locked rotor requirement. Voltage drop, due to wire size, and delay characteristics of the overcurrent protection device may have to be adjusted to protect the motor.
E-9.12.2 Non-motor Loads - The rating of overcurrent protection devices used to protect a load other than a DC motor shall not exceed 150 percent of the ampacity of its supply conductor. See Table IV.
E-9.12.3 Branch Circuits
E-9.12.3.1 Each ungrounded conductor of a branch circuit shall be provided with overcurrent protection at the point of connection to the main switchboard unless the main circuit breaker or fuse provides such protection.
E-9.12.3.2 Each fuse or trip-free circuit breaker shall be rated in accordance with E-9.12.1 and E-9.12.2 and shall not exceed 150 percent of the conductor ampacity in Table IV. See Figure 12.
E-9.12.4 Panelboards and Switchboards - A trip-free circuit breaker or a fuse shall be installed at the source of power for panelboards and switchboards, and shall not exceed 100 percent of the load capacity of that panel, or 100 percent of the current carrying capacity of the feeders.
EXCEPTION: The trip free circuit breaker or fuse at the source of power may be rated at up to 150 percent of the conductor ampacity if there is a sub-main circuit breaker or fuse in the panelboard or switchboard that is rated at no more than 100 percent of the load capacity, or the feeder ampacity, whichever is less. See Figure 13.
E-9.12.5 Circuit Breakers
E-9.12.5.1 Circuit breakers installed in spaces requiring ignition protection shall comply with SAE J1171, External Ignition Protection of Marine Devices, or UL 1500, Ignition Protection Test for Marine Products. If internal explosion tests are required, the ignition of the test gas shall be created at 4 times the current rating of the device being tested.
E-9.12.5.2 Circuit breakers shall
E-9.12.5.2.1 have a DC voltage rating of not less than the nominal system voltage, and
E-9.12.5.2.2 be of the trip-free type, and
E-9.12.5.2.3 be capable of an interrupting capacity according to Table III, and remain operable after the fault,
EXCEPTION: Integral overcurrent protection in electrical devices.

NOTES: 1. A fuse in series with, and ahead of the circuit breaker, may be used to comply with Table III.
2. Consult the circuit breaker manufacturer to determine the fuse size and the type of fuse.
E-9.12.5.2.4 be of the manual reset type except as provided in E-9.12.7.
E-9.12.6 Fuses
E-9.12.6.1 Fuses shall have a voltage rating of not less than the nominal system voltage.
E-9.12.6.2 Fuses installed in spaces requiring ignition protection shall comply with SAE J1171, External Ignition Protection for Marine Devices, or UL 1500, Ignition Protection Test for Marine Products. If internal explosion tests are required, the ignition of the test gas shall be created at four times the rating of the fuse.
E-9.12.7 Integral Overcurrent Protection Devices - Integral overcurrent protection devices without a manual reset may be used as an integral part of an electrical device provided the rest of the circuit is protected by a trip-free circuit protection device(s) or a fuse(s).
E-9.12.8 Pigtails - Pigtails less than 7 inches (175mm) in length are exempt from overcurrent protection requirements.

E-9.13 SWITCHES
E-9.13.1 If single pole switches are used in branch circuits they shall be installed in the positive conductor of the circuit.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Engine mounted pressure, vacuum, and temperature operated switches.
2. Switches such as those used for control of alarm systems.
E-9.13.2 Switches shall have voltage ratings not less than the system voltage, current ratings not less than the connected load, and shall be rated for the type of load, i.e., inductive or resistive.
EXCEPTION: Battery switches. See E-9.11.3.3.

E-9.14 APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT
E-9.14.1 Appliances and fixed DC electrical equipment shall be designed so that the current carrying parts of the device are insulated from all exposed electrically conductive parts.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. 12 volt equipment not located in machinery spaces, not in contact with bilge, and not in contact with a fuel line.
2. Communications and audio equipment
3. Electric navigation equipment
4. Instruments and instrument clusters
5. Liquid level gauge transmitters. For installation of fuel tank transmitters on conductive surfaces. See E-9.14.4.
6. Navigation lights operating at nominal 12 volts. See ABYC A-16, Electric Navigation Lights.
7. Auxiliary generator sets
8. Engine mounted equipment. See E-9.5.1.
E-9.14.2 Devices subject to exceptions 1 through 8 in E-9.14.1 shall be installed with the case negative, and the positive connection shall be identified.
E-9.14.3 All exposed electrically conductive non-current carrying parts of fixed DC electrical equipment, and appliances that may normally be in contact with bilge water or seawater, shall be connected to the DC grounding system.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Boats not equipped with a DC grounding system.
2. Equipment with an effective double insulation system.
3. Metal parts isolated in non-conductive material
4. Electric trolling motors
E-9.14.4 Grounded Liquid Level Gauge Transmitters (senders) - Grounded liquid level gauge transmitters mounted on fuel tanks or tank plates shall have the transmitter negative return conductor connected directly to the DC main negative bus, the engine negative terminal, or for outboard boats the battery negative terminal or its bus. No other device shall be connected to this conductor. This conductor shall also serve as the static ground and/or the bonding conductor for the tank and fill. If a fuel tank is included in the lightning protection system the conductor between the fuel tank and the DC main negative bus shall meet the requirements of ABYC E-4, Lightning Protection.

E-9.15 SYSTEM WIRING
E-9.15.8 Conductors used for panelboard or switchboard main feeders, bilge blowers, electronic equipment, navigation lights, and other circuits where voltage drop must be kept to a minimum, shall be sized for a voltage drop not to exceed 3 percent. Conductors used for lighting, other than navigation lights, and other circuits where voltage drop is not critical, shall be sized for a voltage drop not to exceed 10 percent.

E-9.16 WIRING IDENTIFICATION
E-9.16.1 Each electrical conductor that is part of the boat's electrical system shall have a means to identify its function in the system.
EXCEPTION: Pigtails less than 7 inches (175mm) in length.
E-9.16.2 Insulated grounding conductors shall be identified by the color green or green with yellow stripe(s).
E-9.16.3 The color code shown in Table XI identifies colors for DC conductors used for general wiring purposes on boats.
E-9.16.4 The color code shown in Table XII identifies one selection of colors for use as an engine accessory wiring color code. Other means of identification may be used providing a wiring diagram of the system indicating the method of identification is provided with each boat.
E-9.16.4.1 Color coding may be accomplished by colored sleeving or color application to wiring at termination points.
E-9.16.4.2 If tape is used to mark a wire, the tape shall be at least 3/16 inch (5mm) in width, and shall have sufficient length to make at least two complete turns around the conductor to be marked. The tape shall be applied to be visible near each terminal.

E-9.17 INSTALLATION
E-9.17.1 Wiring shall be installed in a manner that will avoid magnetic loops in the area of the compass and magnetically sensitive devices. Direct current wires that may create magnetic fields in this area shall run in twisted pairs.
E-9.17.2 Junction boxes, cabinets, and other enclosures in which electrical connections are made, shall be weatherproof or installed in a protected location to minimize the entrance or accumulation of moisture or water within the boxes, cabinets, or enclosures.
E-9.17.3 In wet locations, metallic junction boxes, cabinets, or enclosures shall be mounted to minimize the entrapment of moisture between the box, cabinet, or enclosure and the adjacent structure. If air spacing is used to accomplish this, the minimum spacing shall be 1/4 inch (7mm).
E-9.17.4 Current carrying conductors shall be routed as high as practicable above the bilge water level and other areas where water may accumulate. If conductors must be routed in the bilge, or other areas where water may accumulate, the wiring and connections shall be watertight.
E-9.17.5 Conductors shall be routed as far away as practicable from exhaust pipes and other heat sources. Unless an equivalent thermal barrier is provided, a clearance of at least 2 inches (51mm) between conductors and water cooled exhaust components, and a clearance of at least 9 inches (230mm) between conductors and dry exhaust components, shall be maintained. Conductors shall not be routed directly above a dry exhaust.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Wiring on engines.
2. Exhaust temperature sensor wiring.
E-9.17.6 Battery cables without overcurrent protection shall comply with the following:
E-9.17.6.1 Battery cables shall be routed above normal bilge water levels throughout their length;
E-9.17.6.2 Battery cables shall be routed to avoid contact with metallic fuel system components;
E-9.17.6.3 The ungrounded battery cable shall be routed to avoid contact with any part of the engine or drive train.
E-9.17.7 Conductors that may be exposed to physical damage shall be protected by self-draining loom, conduit, tape, raceways, or other equivalent protection. Conductors passing through bulkheads or structural members shall be protected to minimize insulation damage such as chafing. Conductors shall also be routed clear of sources of chafing such as steering cable and linkages, engine shafts, and throttle connections.
E-9.17.8 DC conductors shall be sheathed, bundled, or otherwise kept separate from AC conductors.
E-9.17.9 Conductors shall be at least 16 AWG.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. 18 AWG conductors may be used if included with other conductors in a sheath, and do not extend more than 30 inches (760mm) outside the sheath.
2. Conductors having a current flow of less than one amp in communication systems, electronic navigation equipment and electronic circuits.
3. Conductors that are totally inside an equipment housing.
E-9.17.10 Conductors shall be supported throughout their length or shall be secured at least every 18 inches (455mm) by one of the following methods:
E-9.17.10.1 By means of non-metallic clamps sized to hold the conductors firmly in place. Non-metallic straps or clamps shall not be used over engine(s), moving shafts, other machinery or passageways, if failure would result in a hazardous condition. The material shall be resistant to oil, gasoline, and water and shall not break or crack within a temperature range of -34C (-30F) to 121C (250F);
E-9.17.10.2 By means of metal straps or clamps with smooth, rounded edges to hold the conductors firmly in place without damage to the conductors or insulation. That section of the conductor or cable directly under the strap or clamp shall be protected by means of loom, tape or other suitable wrapping to prevent injury to the conductor;
E-9.17.10.3 By means of metal clamps lined with an insulating material resistant to the effects of oil, gasoline, and water.
EXCEPTIONS: Exception to E-9.17.10:
1. Battery cables within 36 inches (910mm) of a battery terminal.
2. Cables attached to outboard motors.
E-9.17.11 All electrical appliances and equipment designed for permanent installation shall be securely mounted to the boat's structure.
E-9.17.12 Wiring Connections
E-9.17.12.1 All connections shall be in locations protected from the weather, or in weatherproof enclosures, or shall be watertight. If connections are exposed to immersion they shall be watertight.
E-9.17.12.2 Wiring connections shall be designed and installed to make mechanical and electrical joints without damage to the conductors.
E-9.17.12.3 Metals used for terminal studs, nuts, and washers shall be corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the conductor and terminal lug. Aluminum and unplated steel shall not be used for studs, nuts, and washers.
E-9.17.12.4 Each conductor splice joining conductor to conductor, conductor to connectors, and conductor to terminals shall be able to withstand a tensile force equal to at least the value shown in Table XIII for the smallest conductor size used in the splice for a one minute duration and not break.
E-9.17.12.5 Terminal connectors shall be the ring or captive spade types. See Figure 14.
EXCEPTION: Friction type connectors may be used if
a. the voltage drop from terminal to terminal does not exceed 50 millivolts for a 20 amp current flow, and
b. the connection does not separate if subjected to a six pound (2.75kg) tensile force along the axial direction of the connector for one minute.
E-9.17.12.6 Connections may be made using a set screw pressure type conductor connector providing a means is used to prevent the set screw from bearing directly on the conductor strands.
E-9.17.12.7 Twist-on connectors, i.e., wire nuts, shall not be used.
E-9.17.12.8 Solder shall not be the sole means of mechanical connection in any circuit. If soldered, the connection shall be so located or supported as to minimize flexing of the conductor where the solder changes the flexible conductor into a solid conductor.
EXCEPTION: Battery lugs with a solder contact length of not less than 1.5 times the diameter of the conductor.
NOTE: When a stranded conductor is soldered, the soldered portion of the conductor becomes a solid strand conductor and flexing can cause the conductor to break at the end of the solder joint unless adequate additional support is provided.
E-9.17.12.9 Crimp-on connectors shall be attached with crimping tools designed for the connector used, and to produce a connection that meets the requirements of E-9.17.12.4.
E-9.17.12.10 No more than four conductors shall be secured to any one terminal stud. If additional connections are necessary, two or more terminal studs shall be connected together by means of jumpers or copper straps.
E-9.17.12.11 Ring and captive spade type terminal connectors shall be the same nominal size as the stud.
E-9.17.12.12 Conductors terminating at switchboards, in junction boxes, or fixtures shall be arranged to provide a length of conductor to relieve tension, to allow for repairs, and to permit multiple conductors to be fanned at terminal studs.
E-9.17.12.13 The shanks of terminals shall be protected against accidental shorting by the use of insulation barriers or sleeves.
EXCEPTION: The shanks of terminals used in grounding systems.

E-9.18 RECEPTACLES
E-9.18.1 Receptacles installed in locations subject to rain, spray, or splash shall be weatherproof when not in use.
NOTE: Weatherproofing may be provided by means such as spring-loaded, self-closing, or snap-type receptacle covers.
E-9.18.2 Receptacles installed in areas subject to flooding or momentary submersion shall be of a watertight design, the integrity of which is not affected when the receptacle is in use.
E-9.18.3 Receptacles and matching plugs used on DC systems shall not be interchangeable with receptacles and matching plugs used elsewhere on the boat for AC systems.

E-9.19 PLUG CONNECTIONS
E-9.19.1 Multi-wire plugs and receptacles used in conjunction with harness type wiring systems shall comply with the following:
E-9.19.1.1 Plugs and receptacles shall incorporate means, such as cable clamps, molded connectors, insulation grips, extended terminal barrels, etc., for supporting all wires to limit flexing at the connection, and
E-9.19.1.2 plugs and receptacles exposed to weather shall be weatherproof, or if subject to immersion, shall be watertight.
E-9.19.2 Each terminal in a multi-wire plug and receptacle shall be protected from accidental short-circuiting to adjacent terminals.
E-9.19.3 Plug connectors shall have a minimum disengagement force of 6 pounds (2.75kg) along the axial direction of the connector for one minute.
E-9.19.4 The plug connector's capacity shall be selected to meet or exceed the ampacity and temperature rating of the connecting conductors in addition to its wire size capability.

E-9.20 MAIN SWITCHBOARD OR PANELBOARD
E-9.20.1 A main switchboard or panelboard shall be installed in a readily accessible location, and shall be weatherproof or protected from the weather and splash.
E-9.20.2 Switchboards and panelboards used on boats with more than one system voltage shall have a permanent marking showing the system voltage and its type (DC).
E-9.20.3 Switchboards and panelboards shall be designed so that there are no exposed energized AC parts accessible to the operator when the DC panel is open.

E-9.21 DC GROUNDING AND BONDING
E-9.21.1 DC Grounding - If a DC grounding system is installed, the DC grounding conductor shall be used to connect metallic non-current carrying parts of those direct current devices identified in E-9.14.3 to the engine negative terminal or its bus for the purpose of minimizing stray current corrosion. See Figure 15.
NOTE: This system is the DC grounding system formerly published as ABYC E-1, Bonding of Direct Current Systems.
E-9.21.2 DC Grounding Conductor
E-9.21.2.1 A DC grounding conductor shall not be smaller than one size under that required for current carrying conductors supplying the device and not less than 16 AWG. See Figure 15 and Figure 16.
E-9.21.2.2 Routing - The DC grounding conductor shall be routed from the device to the engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus by one of the following means:
E-9.21.2.2.1 The DC grounding conductor shall be routed together with the current carrying conductors as a third wire;
E-9.21.2.2.2 The DC grounding conductor shall be routed as a separate conductor.
E-9.21.2.3 The DC grounding conductor shall be connected to a DC grounding bus in accordance with E-9.21.5.
E-9.21.2.4 Connections - DC grounding conductor connections shall be made in accordance with E-9.17.12.
E-9.21.5 DC Grounding Bus
E-9.21.5.1 The DC grounding bus shall be connected directly to the engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus.
E-9.21.5.2 The DC grounding bus serving more than one electrical device shall comply with E-9.21.2 for the largest device, and shall be manufactured and installed in accordance with the following:
E-9.21.5.2.1 If the DC grounding bus is fabricated from copper or bronze strip, it shall have a thickness not less than 1/32 inch (0.8mm) and a width of not less than 1/2 inch (13mm); and
E-9.21.5.2.1.1 shall be drilled and tapped providing its thickness ensures no less than three full threads of engagement for the terminal screws; or
E-9.21.5.2.1.2 shall be through-drilled, and the connections made with machine screws and locknuts.
NOTE: Copper pipe may be used providing its wall thickness is sufficient for the pipe to be drilled and tapped as required above.
E-9.21.5.2.2 Copper braid shall not be used.
E-9.21.6 Combined DC Grounding and Bonding Systems - The DC grounding conductors may be combined with the following systems providing all the requirements with respect to conductor size are met for each system. See Figure 15, Figure 16 and Figure 17.
E-9.21.6.1 Lightning Protection - See ABYC E-4, Lightning Protection.
E-9.21.6.2 Cathodic Bonding - See ABYC E-2, Cathodic Protection.
E-9.21.6.3 Static Electricity Grounding - See E-9.14.4, ABYC H-24, Gasoline Fuel Systems, and ABYC H-33, Diesel Fuel Systems.
E-9.21.7 Radio Ground Plate - If the radio ground plate is connected to the engine negative terminal, the connecting conductor shall meet the requirements of ABYC E-4, Lightning Protection, since a radio ground plate may also function as a lightning ground plate.
E-9.21.8 Coaxial Cables and Conduit - The metallic braid of coaxial cables and metal conduit used for radio interference, or any form of radio shielding or armoring, shall be connected to earth ground with an insulated stranded copper conductor.
TABLE III - CIRCUIT BREAKER MINIMUM AMPERE INTERRUPTING CAPACITY


Ampere Interrupting Capacity (AIC)
(amperage available at circuit breaker terminals)

Total Connected Battery
(Cold Cranking Amperes) Main Circuit Breaker
(Amperes)
*See Note Branch Circuit Breaker
(Amperes)
*See Note
12 Volts 650 or less 1500 750
and 651-1100 3000 1500
24 Volts over 1100 5000 2500
32 Volts 1250 or less 3000 1500
over 1250 5000 2500


*NOTE: The main circuit breaker(s) is considered to be the first breaker(s) in a circuit connected in series with the battery. All subsequent breakers, including sub-main breakers, connected in series with a main circuit breaker shall be considered to be branch circuit breakers. See Figure 12.

TABLE XI - WIRING COLOR CODE

Color Use
Green, or green w/yellow stripe(s) DC grounding conductors
Black, or yellow DC negative conductors
Red DC positive conductors


TABLE XII - ENGINE AND ACCESSORY WIRING COLOR CODE

COLOR ITEM USE

Yellow w/red stripe (YR)
Starting circuit
Starting switch to solenoid

Brown/yellow stripe (BY) or
Yellow (Y) - see note
Bilge blowers
Fuse or switch to blowers

Dark gray (Gy)

Navigation lights
Tachometer
Fuse or switch to lights
Tachometer sender to gauge

Brown (Br)
Generator armature
Generator armature to regulator
Alternator charge light

Pumps Generator
Terminal/alternator
Auxiliary terminal to light to regulator
Fuse or switch to pumps

Orange (O)
Accessory feed
Ammeter to alternator or generator output and accessory fuses or switches.
Distribution panel to accessory switch

Purple (Pu)
Ignition
ignition switch to coil and electrical instruments.
Instrument feed Distribution panel to electric instruments

Dark blue
Cabin and instrument lights
Fuse or switch to lights

Light blue (Lt Bl)
Oil pressure
Oil pressure sender to gauge

Tan
Water temperature
Water temperature sender to gauge

Pink (Pk)
Fuel gauge
Fuel gauge sender to gauge

Green/stripe (G/x)
(Except G/Y)
Tilt down and/or trim in
Tilt and/or trim circuits

Blue/stripe (Bl/x)
Tilt up and/or trim out
Tilt and/or trim circuits
NOTE: If yellow is used for DC negative, blower must be brown with yellow stripe.

 

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